Class 11 Informatics Practices (065) Sumita Arora Exercise Solution
Chapter 12 – Emerging Trends
1. What is Artificial Intelligence? How has it impacted our lives?
Answer – Artificial Intelligence (AI) refers to the ability of a machine or a computer program to think, learn an evolve.
An intelligent machine imitates some of the cognitive functions of humans like learning, decision making and problem solving.
2. Name some fields where AI has found applications.
Answer –Fields of AI revolve around bringing out technologies that help build machines that can think, act, and learn like humans.
Ex. of AI are Sophia, Siri, Google Now, Cortana, Alexa.
3. What are the new things that AI had made possible?
4. What is Internet of things? What is its utility?
Answer – The Internet of Things (IoT) is a network of devices that have an embedded hardware and software to communicate (connect and exchange data) with other devices on the same network.
IoT tends to bring together devices to work in collaboration and assist each other in creating an intelligent network of things. For example, if a microwave oven, an air conditioner, door lock, CCTV camera or other such devices are enabled to connect to the Internet, we can access and remotely control them on-the-go using our smartphone.
5. What is Virtual Reality (VR)?
Answer – Virtual Reality (VR) is a three-dimensional, computer-generated situation that simulates the real world. The user can interact with and explore that environment by getting immersed in it while interacting with the objects and other actions of the user.
6. List some uses of VR.
Answer – It is used in gaming, military training, medical procedures, entertainment, social science and psychology, engineering and other areas where simulation is needed for a better understanding and learning.
7. Enlist some VR devices.
Answer – Common VR devices popular today are Oculus Rift, HTC Vive, Gear VR, PlayStation VR etc.
8. What is Augmented Reality (AR)?
Answer– The superimposition of computer generated perceptual information over the existing physical surroundings is called as Augmented Reality (AR).
9. How is Augmented Reality different from Virtual Reality?
Answer – Unlike Virtual Reality, the Augmented Reality does not create something new, it just alters or augments the perception of the underlying physical world through additional information.
10. What is Mixed Reality?
Answer – A combined technology that makes use of both AR and VR is called Mixed Reality (MR).
11. What is Machine Learning (ML)?
Answer – Machine Learning is a subsystem of Artificial Intelligence, wherein computers have the ability to learn from data using statistical techniques, without being explicitly programmed by a human being. It comprises algorithms that use data to learn on their own and make predictions.
12. Name some fields of ML application.
Answer – Common fields of ML application are Facial recognition, Autonomous, Political campaigns, Personal assistants.
13. Can you explain how ML be used in business?
14. What is data analytics? How is it useful?
Answer – Data analytics is the process of examining data sets in order to draw conclusions about the information they contain, with the aid of specialised systems and software.
They are used in commercial industries to enable organisations to make more informed business decisions. In the field of science and technology, it can be useful for researchers to verify or disprove scientific models, theories and hypotheses.
15. What is Natural Language Processing (NLP)?
Answer – NLP (Natural Language Processing) is an artificially intelligence technology helps computers understand, interpret and manipulate human language and even potentially generate human language.
16. Name some NLP applications.
Answer – The predictive typing feature of search engine that helps us by suggesting the next word in the sentence while typing keywords and the spell checking features are examples of Natural Language Processing (NLP).
17. What is Robotics? Is it related to AI?
Answer – Robotics is an interdisciplinary branch of technology requiring applications of mechanical engineering, electronics, and computer science, among others. Robotics is primarily concerned with the design, fabrication, operation, and application of robots.
18. What are Robots? Are all robots related to AI?
Answer – A robot is basically a machine capable of carrying out one or more tasks automatically with accuracy and precision. Unlike other machines, a robot is programmable, which means it can follow the instructions given through computer programs.
No, all robots are not related to AI.
19. What is big data? Can big data be stored in regular databases?
Answer – Data sets of enormous volume and complexity called Big Data.
Most Big Data is unstructured, which makes it ill-suitedfor traditional relational databases, which require data in tables-and-rows format.
20. Discuss some characteristics of big data.
Answer – (a) Volume: – The most prominent characteristic of big data is its enormous size. If a particular data set is of such large size that it is difficult to process it with traditional DBMS tools, it can be termed as big data.
(b) Velocity: – It represents the rate at which the data under consideration is being generated and stored. Big data has an exponentially higher rate of generation than traditional data sets.
(c) Variety: – It asserts that a data set has varied data, such as structured, semi-structured and unstructured data. Some examples are text, images, videos, web pages and so on.
(d) Veracity: – It refers to the trustworthiness of the data because processing such incorrect data can give wrong results or mislead the interpretations.
(e) Value: – Big data must be stored, processed and analysed in a way so that it gets converted into something valuable and produce some real valuable information.
21. What do you understand by ‘Low veracity data’?
Answer – It contains a high percentage of meaningless data.
22. What is WoT? Is it related to IoT?
Answer – The Web of Things (WoT) is framework with a vision where every day’s smart devices and objects are connected the web using existing web technologies and standards.